The EU, the Middle East, and Regional Integration
Published: March 2007
The European Union’s venture into enhancing trade linkages with the Middle East, as conceived by the 1995 Barcelona Process, had high hopes but failed in producing the intended political and economic deliverables. The Euro–Mediterranean Partnerships were flawed, as they created a hub and spoke trading relationship offering few of the welfare or (often forgotten) political benefits envisioned by the Europeans. The 2004 Agadir Agreement, however, may help rectify some of these problems by helping to stimulate intraregional trade.